Transformation of Mumbai: Mills to Malls

One of my major goals in 2020 was to complete this Mumbai series of blogs. And over the last seven weeks, we have achieved a new milestone. I want to thank each and every one of you who have read and shared the blogs and extended your support. The Time Machine Project in which we discuss the evolution process of cities comes to the final part of this season where we discuss the post-industrial effect of the city and how the shift from mills to malls happened.

In an overview, we learned about the forts in Mumbai, then how these ‘seven islands created a flux’. We also saw how mills came and how because of mills we saw a settlement of chawls which was an integral part of the city.

As space, we never term it as stagnant. It is a living organism, which keeps on growing. In terms of cities, they have the same behavior. To understand the behavioral changes in the space we need to understand first that space is always associated with a function. Now, this function determines the nature of the city. For example, during the colonial era when mills were there in the city, it’s the ‘industrial era’. Where the whole city is associated with the production of some material. In the post-industrial era of the city was going to serve as a nodal center for the global economy.

In the previous blog, we understood the myths of sickness which was quite a structured and framed way for getting away from a situation without thinking of the consequences of the mill workers. Now this “deindustrialization of the city” moved in many different directions where on one side it opened gates for MNCs to be part of the economic ecosystem, proposals of new city centers like Bandra-Kurla, Vasai – Virar and Navi Mumbai.

The new Development Control Rules of 1991, framed by Sharad Pawar’s Congress Government in the state, in response to structural adjustment policies of liberalization and echoing the dictates of global and domestic capital, permitted the sale of 15% of the land of textile mills. The new regulation in urban land-use rules repealed the older zoning regulations which earmarked land for either industrial, commercial or residential uses, and governed patterns of employment and ensuring their long-term stability and overall design to the metropolis.

A view of Bombay from the Rajabai Tower
A view of Bombay from the Rajabai Tower

The Charles Correa Committee Report, commissioned by the BJP-Shiv Sena Government in 1996 to suggest an overall scheme for the redevelopment of the mill areas, has never been released to the public. The mill lands continued to be plundered under the BJP-Sena rule and the government continued to appoint committees, announce plans, and vacillate as the problem festered. The proceeds from this 15% of the land of Bombay’s 58 mills were intended to be reinvested in the reserved industrial areas of the mill compound, while in fact the mills are being demolished.

The 1991 DC Rules were thus further retreated of the state from the regulation of urban development under pressure from “market forces” = profiteering by not only builders and businessmen, but corrupt politicians, bureaucrats, and their agents. Responsibility for monitoring this market-oriented redevelopment is entrusted not to the legally accountable agencies of the state, but to private banks and financial institutions. The undervaluation of the land by the millowners – in some cases by more than 50 crores – in their reports goes unchallenged.

Panorama of Fort, Bombay

The plight for the mill workers and the murder of the mills is but a notorious example of a larger crisis in urban planning, most recently manifest in the imposition of numerous fly-overs and bridges all over the city approved by the BMC (Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation) against the warning of the MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority) and consultants about the enormous environmental and social damage these new constructions would bring. This critical situation in our city calls for more rather than less intervention and planning, more participation by concerned individuals and groups, rather than a retreat into the interior world of comforting consumerism with which the new economy entices us.

Development is not an inevitable, uncontrollable process that has its own objective logic, But a political process that must be responded to politically.

Though these fancy malls you visit may create an illusion of luxury this has come over a cost. A cost that thousands of people have given.

Is it worth the sacrifice?

What would have happened if mills still would have been there??

Could there be any other option through which this transition of mills to malls could have been done without hampering people’s livelihood???

Now that the mall culture is also dying what would be the next shift??

Let me know your thoughts in the comment section below.
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Murder of the Mills: A Case Study of Phoenix Mills – Shekhar Krishnan, Neera Adarkar
Gentrification in the mill land areas of Mumbai city: A case Study – Dwiparna Chatterjee
Cityscape metamorphosed – “indications of spatial transformation in Lower Parel, Mumbai” – Sujayita Bhattacharjee

This Story Behind Decline Of Mills In Mumbai Will Haunt You Forever!

While today when we go to Phoenix Mall (Mall in South Mumbai) we won’t give a thought on why there’s a Chimney in the middle of the mall.

Why they named its Phoenix mall? Why not a Unicorn mall?

Why some structures still have sloping roof profiles. Is there a past??

YES, indeed and to understand this we need to go a century back to understand the situation of mills in Bombay.


These mill districts were the birthplace of India’s First working class as the Bombay Textile industry was the harbinger of India’s modern industry and the economic backbone of the city. Until the mid-nineteenth century, the city had been something of a backwater in the Indian Empire. The administrative and trading center of the subcontinent had, since the time of the British Conquest been in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and the wars with the Maratha’s, the lack of transportation, and other links had hindered Bombay’s growth. But certain historical events spurred the growth of the city. The consolidation of colonial power after the uprising of 1857, the end of the Maratha wars, and the setting of the western Indian. Hinterland under colonial power; the depression in the global cotton market because of the American Civil War and the opening of the Suez Canal in the 1860s.

The signboard of the revamped "Phoenix Centre", destination for corporate investment, elite business and pleasure
The signboard of the revamped “Phoenix Centre”, destination for corporate investment, elite business and pleasure

The first great mill strike occurred in 1919 when 1.5 lakh workers struck work for 18days to demand an increase in wages. The strike was successful despite the lack of established union leadership.

Between October 1928 and April 1929 there were more than 70 strikes. These strikes gave birth to GIRNI KAMGAR UNION (GKU).

From the 1920s to 1940s Girangaon became a stronghold of the Left, represented by GKU, and bred a new generation of national leaders based in the labor movement like N.M. Joshi, S.A. Dange.

The second world war, in which India formed a major base for the allied forces in Asia was a time of much political ferment in Girangaon. Phoenix Mills was itself the site of a famous public meeting of Subhash Chandra Bose and the mill workers of Bombay, a militant constituency that Bose knew he could rely on in his struggle against colonial exploitation.

01_bowling company

In Bombay on 2nd October 1939, 90,000 workers – mostly from the textile mills went on a one-day strike against the unilateral declaration of war against Germany and Italy on India’s behalf by Britain. This strike, against the dragging of India into an imperialist war, is generally considered the first anti-war strike in the world working-class movement.

The support extended by the communist party to the British during World War II alienated the fiery national sentiments of the mill workers of Girangaon. In the years preceding independence, the congress was able to win the political loyalty of the mill areas through the consistent opposition to the British and their war. The mill workers participated spontaneously in the abortive quit India movement launched in Bombay in August 1942 by Gandhi. The working-class support for the freedom struggle led by the congress was channeled into new unions started by congress politicians to woo the workers away from the communists. These unions were later consolidated into the Rashtriya Mill Mazdoor Sangh (RMMS) in 1947.

The mill owners began to siphon funds from their textile mills to other more profitable activities. On the other hand, in the late 1970s, hoarding of Urban land and non-implementation of the Urban Land Ceiling Act, 1976 caused to arise in real estate values in the island city of Bombay encouraging many businesses and industries to sell their lands for a profit and move elsewhere. However, the mills and millowners could not avail of this profitable opportunity.

fire and ice disco

According to the Municipal Development Rules, the mill lands are reserved for industrial use, as they were given to the millowners at concessional rates by the colonial Bombay Government at the beginning of the century to promote industrial production and to develop the city and its hinterland.

Since then, because of the highly organized and strident nature of mill workers and the fear of the owners of their agitations, both industrialists and the government retained the stipulation of industrial use of mill lands. Because of these restrictions on the change of use the textile mills could not sell their lands except through surreptitious and illegal means.

It is against this background that the decline and sickness of the textile mills need to be seen. Millowners were less interested in developing their industry than in profiteering from real estate and the phenomenon of sick industries is not the cause but a symptom of the fact that real estate has become more valuable than textile production. The mills have not declined on their own but through being rendered sick by their owners. Those that remain in business do so because of the ease with which they can subcontract textile production to cheap, unprotected labor in power looms outside the city.

girni kamgar sangh


The strategy adopted by most millowners has been similar. First, the profit from the mills is siphoned off, outdated machinery is not upgraded and production is reduced or subcontracted, thereby rendering the mill “sick”. The sickness of the mill and the decline in the profitability and productive capacity becomes an excuse to stop paying wages to the workers.

Secondly, the management approaches the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), a quasi-judicial body constituted by the Central Government under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act 1985 to revive sick industries or decide on their viability in changed economic conditions. BIFR usually has sanctioned schemes submitted by the mill management for a revival and modernization of the mill, provided tax concessions and participation by financial institutions, and granted permission for sale or lease of a portion of the mill land so that the proceeds of the land can be reinvested in the mill

The Third move of the management, however, is to pocket the money sanctioned by BIFR and Government and proceed with the sale of the land for other purposes. The elegance of the scheme is that there is no monitoring agency to ensure that the schemes sanctioned the BIFR are actually implemented and the stated objectives complied with. This giant loophole is not incidental. While the workers’ wages were withheld and the machinery from the mill removed and sold, they are arbitrarily denied entrance to the mill on working days by shutting of the gates, and the BIFR revival scheme is quietly buried. Despite court orders, the workers are forced out of their employment and because there is no monitoring of the revival scheme to ensure implementation of the use of the sanctioned public money, a blind eye is turned to these generally illegal developments and constructions on reserved industrial lands.

worker of girni kamgar

The mill worker of the city perhaps had their last hero in the figure of Datta Samant, who led the Great textile strike of 1982-3, which was essentially a revolt against the straitjacket of the RMMS and the central demand of which was the scrapping of the BIFR act. The failure of the strike resulted in the removal of the halt of the mill worker of Bombay and the gradual extermination of the rest in the decades that followed.

girangoan bachao andolan demands

These are a series blog so if you are not following anything is because you haven’t read from the start Click here

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UNTIL THEN, STAY TUNED & STAY SAFE                                                         


Ripping the Fabric: The Decline of Mumbai and its Mills – Darryl D’monte

The Archive of Loss: Lively Ruination in Mill Land Mumbai – Maura Finkelstein

SOURCES AND REFERENCES USED: – Murder of the Mills: A case study of phoenix mills